Restoration Project

University of California Institute of Marine Science - La Jolla

Restoration Objective:

The objective of restoration efforts was to restore lost Macrocystis forests and their associated biological and economic value.

Site Selection Criteria:

A site was selected with historical Macrocystis beds.

Cause Of Decline:

The canopies of most Macrocystis pyrifera beds north of Vizcaino Bay suffered severe damage, presumably from high water temperatures during the latter part of the summer.

Key Reasons For Decline:

Ocean warming

Scientific Paper

Experimental Ecology in Kelp Investigations Program. University California Institute of Marine Science

W.J. North, .

Organisation:

University of California Institute of Marine Science

Site Observations:

Observation Date

15th Feb 1973 – 15th Dec 1975

Action Summary:

From 1973-1975, 28,000 juvenile Macrocystis were planted in North La Jolla. Six cultures of embryonic Macrocystis sporophytes were dispersed on two occasions in 1975.

Lessons Learned:

Multiple efforts were combined over the years, including herbivore control, transplants and culture dispersion.

Project Outcomes:

10,726 juvenile Macrocystis transplanted in 1973 produced canopy and were harvested in late 1974. Excellent germination of Macrocystis dispersed in 1974 was observed in 1975, with some reaching 8 feet long. Large swells caused the mortality or loss of most 1975 transplants.

Nature of Disturbance:

Grazing by Halfmoon and Opaleye (herbivorous fishes) caused damage to kelps. Persistent swells also caused the loss of transplants.
Two years of abnormally high sea surface temperatures from 1957 - 1959 caused the complete loss of the last remaining Macrocystis stands along Paolo Verde.

Key Reasons For Decline:

Ocean warming

Scientific Paper:

W. North, , p.147.

Indicator Data:

Indicator:

Ending Value:

Starting Value:

Presence / Absence of Kelp

Costings:
Cost Currency:USD

Observation Date

17th Jul 1962 – 29th Aug 1963

Action Summary:

A deep water site (58ft) was given a treatment of 2 tonnes of quicklime.

Lessons Learned:

The Paolo Verdes site had most successful regeneration due to its proximity to a healthy Macrocystis bed.

Project Outcomes:

Within a week, there was a noticeable change in vegetation in areas where urchins were 10 or less. A substantial cover of the diatom Licmaphora developed, as well as several brown algae sporophytes. Vegetation was most abundant in areas of broken rocks.

Key Reasons For Decline:

Ocean warming

Scientific Paper:

W. North, .

Indicator Data:

Indicator:

Ending Value:

Starting Value:

Juvenile Kelp Density

0
/ m2
0
/ m2
Costings:
Cost Currency:USD

Observation Date

15th May 1975 – 15th Nov 1975

Action Summary:

1211 Macrocystis juveniles cultured on plastic rings were transplanted from Kerchkhoff Marine Laboratory to North La Jolla in May 1975.

Lessons Learned:

None reported

Project Outcomes:

Ring transplants had grown to about 30 feet by November 1975 but approximately 50 percent of rings lacked Macrocystis.

Nature of Disturbance:

Transplants were dislodged due to improper transplants.
Two years of abnormally high sea surface temperatures from 1957 - 1959 caused the complete loss of the last remaining Macrocystis stands along Paolo Verde.

Key Reasons For Decline:

Ocean warming

Scientific Paper:

W. North, , p.147.

Area of Restoration (In Square Metres)

1,000

Indicator Data:

Indicator:

Ending Value:

Starting Value:

Adult Kelp Count

6001211
Costings:
Cost Currency:USD