Restoration Project

University of Bologna - Monte Conero

Restoration Objective:

The main goal of this experiment was to test the feasibility of enhancing fragmented communities of C. barbata by transplantation onto artificial structures and identify optimal conditions (i.e. position) for such transplantations. This approach would enhance the ecological value of coastal infrastructures, without compromising their original function.

Site Selection Criteria:

The selected site hosts some of the last remaining populations of the threatened Cytoseira genus along the central-northern Italian Adriatic coast.

Cause Of Decline:

Fucoids and kelps form diverse, structurally complex and highly productive canopy habitats along many temperate rocky coasts. Canopies are suffering widespread habitat loss at global scales. Declines in the Mediterranean Sea are well documented, and today six Mediterranean species of Cystoseira are listed as threatened in the Bern Convention and in the Mediterranean Action Plan. In the Mediterranean, the proximate cause for loss of Cystoseira is anthropogenic disturbance, largely in the form of urbanisation.

Key Reasons For Decline:

Multiple

Scientific Paper

Conservation challenges in urban seascapes: promoting the growth of threatened species on coastal infrastructures

S. Perkol-Finkel, F. Ferrario, V. Nicotera, L. Airoldi, , Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 49.https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02204.x

Organisation:

University of Bologna

Site Observations:

Observation Date

1st Jul 2008 – 1st Feb 2009

Action Summary:

Juvenile C. barbata (2-3 months old, 5cm high) were collected from loose boulders. The boulders were broken into small fragments holding 1–2 individuals that were transplanted onto the substrate using epoxy putty to form experimental plots comprising five transplanted individuals. Such plots were transplanted in four habitat types (i) ‘Native habitat’, (ii) Natural bedrock habitat, (iii) Artificial habitat – seaward side, and (iv) Artificial habitat – landward side. For each habitat, two replicated areas were established. Within each area, four plots with transplants were created in each of the following positions: (i) horizontally surrounded with naturally occurring adults (HA), (ii) horizontally without surrounding adults (HW) and (iii) vertically with no surrounding adults (V).

Lessons Learned:

Disturbances (boulder overturning and different herbivory levels) may have impacted results.

Project Outcomes:

Survival was 0% in native habitat (due to boulder overturning), >30% in landward artificial habitats, 20% in the natural bedrock habitats and 9% in the seaward artificial habitats. Differences were not significant except for the native habitat. No significant differences in the size of transplanted juveniles were found between native and other habitats. At the natural bedrock sites, caging did not influence the survival or the cover of juveniles. At the artificial sites in Marotta, uncaged transplants showed severe decline, with nearly 80% of the coverage lost within 8 days. By the end of the reproductive season (June 2009), all settlement plates had some C. barbata juveniles.

Nature of Disturbance:

Virtually no transplants survived in the native habitat after October 2008 due to boulder overturning and disturbance.

Key Reasons For Decline:

Multiple

Area of Restoration (In Square Metres)

0.2

Indicator Data:

Indicator:

Ending Value:

Starting Value:

Percent Survival

32.9317269
%
100
%
Transplant Info:
Source:Wild
Costings:
Cost Currency:USD

Observation Date

1st Jul 2008 – 1st Feb 2009

Action Summary:

Juvenile C. barbata (2-3 months old, 5cm high) were collected from loose boulders. The boulders were broken into small fragments holding 1–2 individuals that were transplanted onto the substrate using epoxy putty to form experimental plots comprising five transplanted individuals. Such plots were transplanted in four habitat types (i) ‘Native habitat’, (ii) Natural bedrock habitat, (iii) Artificial habitat – seaward side, and (iv) Artificial habitat – landward side. For each habitat, two replicated areas were established. Within each area, four plots with transplants were created in each of the following positions: (i) horizontally surrounded with naturally occurring adults (HA), (ii) horizontally without surrounding adults (HW) and (iii) vertically with no surrounding adults (V).

Lessons Learned:

Disturbances (boulder overturning and different herbivory levels) may have impacted results.

Project Outcomes:

Survival was 0% in native habitat (due to boulder overturning), >30% in landward artificial habitats, 20% in the natural bedrock habitats and 9% in the seaward artificial habitats. Differences were not significant except for the native habitat. No significant differences in the size of transplanted juveniles were found between native and other habitats. At the natural bedrock sites, caging did not influence the survival or the cover of juveniles. At the artificial sites in Marotta, uncaged transplants showed severe decline, with nearly 80% of the coverage lost within 8 days. By the end of the reproductive season (June 2009), all settlement plates had some C. barbata juveniles.

Key Reasons For Decline:

Multiple

Area of Restoration (In Square Metres)

0.2

Indicator Data:

Indicator:

Ending Value:

Starting Value:

Percent Survival

8.835341364
%
100
%
Costings:
Cost Currency:USD

Observation Date

1st Jul 2008 – 1st Feb 2009

Action Summary:

Juvenile C. barbata (2-3 months old, 5cm high) were collected from loose boulders. The boulders were broken into small fragments holding 1–2 individuals that were transplanted onto the substrate using epoxy putty to form experimental plots comprising five transplanted individuals. Such plots were transplanted in four habitat types (i) ‘Native habitat’, (ii) Natural bedrock habitat, (iii) Artificial habitat – seaward side, and (iv) Artificial habitat – landward side. For each habitat, two replicated areas were established. Within each area, four plots with transplants were created in each of the following positions: (i) horizontally surrounded with naturally occurring adults (HA), (ii) horizontally without surrounding adults (HW) and (iii) vertically with no surrounding adults (V).

Lessons Learned:

Disturbances (boulder overturning and different herbivory levels) may have impacted results.

Project Outcomes:

Survival was 0% in native habitat (due to boulder overturning), >30% in landward artificial habitats, 20% in the natural bedrock habitats and 9% in the seaward artificial habitats. Differences were not significant except for the native habitat. No significant differences in the size of transplanted juveniles were found between native and other habitats. At the natural bedrock sites, caging did not influence the survival or the cover of juveniles. At the artificial sites in Marotta, uncaged transplants showed severe decline, with nearly 80% of the coverage lost within 8 days. By the end of the reproductive season (June 2009), all settlement plates had some C. barbata juveniles.

Key Reasons For Decline:

Multiple

Area of Restoration (In Square Metres)

0.2

Indicator Data:

Indicator:

Ending Value:

Starting Value:

Percent Survival

0
%
100
%
Costings:
Cost Currency:USD

Observation Date

1st Jul 2008 – 1st Feb 2009

Action Summary:

Juvenile C. barbata (2-3 months old, 5cm high) were collected from loose boulders. The boulders were broken into small fragments holding 1–2 individuals that were transplanted onto the substrate using epoxy putty to form experimental plots comprising five transplanted individuals. Such plots were transplanted in four habitat types (i) ‘Native habitat’, (ii) Natural bedrock habitat, (iii) Artificial habitat – seaward side, and (iv) Artificial habitat – landward side. For each habitat, two replicated areas were established. Within each area, four plots with transplants were created in each of the following positions: (i) horizontally surrounded with naturally occurring adults (HA), (ii) horizontally without surrounding adults (HW) and (iii) vertically with no surrounding adults (V).

Lessons Learned:

Disturbances (boulder overturning and different herbivory levels) may have impacted results.

Project Outcomes:

Survival was 0% in native habitat (due to boulder overturning), >30% in landward artificial habitats, 20% in the natural bedrock habitats and 9% in the seaward artificial habitats. Differences were not significant except for the native habitat. No significant differences in the size of transplanted juveniles were found between native and other habitats. At the natural bedrock sites, caging did not influence the survival or the cover of juveniles. At the artificial sites in Marotta, uncaged transplants showed severe decline, with nearly 80% of the coverage lost within 8 days. By the end of the reproductive season (June 2009), all settlement plates had some C. barbata juveniles.

Key Reasons For Decline:

Multiple

Area of Restoration (In Square Metres)

0.2

Indicator Data:

Indicator:

Ending Value:

Starting Value:

Percent Survival

19.44
%
100
%
Costings:
Cost Currency:USD