Restoration Project

Universidad de Los Lagos - Puerto Montt

Restoration Objective:

This study assessed different substrata for M. pyrifera settlement sporophytes in a hatchers, and assessed success in the field for repopulating natural populations. Repopulation is proposed in order to help recover exploited forests of M. pyrifera. It is also an opportunity for market diversification for artisanal fishermen and small entrepreneurs in the south of Chile where this kelp is harvested as feed for abalone farms.

Site Selection Criteria:

Two sites were selected for transplantation; one with Macrocystis pyrifera forest and one without. Each site was approximately 10m2, with the same oceanographic conditions.

Cause Of Decline:

In Chile, commercial harvesting of brown algae is increasing and signs of over-exploitation of kelp forests have been detected. The main driving force behind brown algal demand in Chile has been for alginate and for Macrocystis pyrifera as feed for abalone farming. Therefore, there is a need to develop techniques to repopulate sites in which the algae has disappeared or decreased due to either anthropogenic causes or natural catastrophe, such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation.

Key Reasons For Decline:

Harvest

Scientific Paper

Evaluation of repopulation techniques for the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera (Laminariales)

X. Vasquez, A. Gutierrez, A.H. Buschmann, R. Flores, D. Farias, P. Leal, , Botanica Marina, Vol. 57.https://doi.org/10.1515/bot-2014-0005

Organisation:

Universidad de Los Lagos

Site Observations:

Observation Date

1st Jan 2010 – 15th Mar 2010

Action Summary:

M. pyrifera was seeded on substratum units and transplanted to areas with and without kelp. Researchers then determined density, length (mm) and biomass (g) of M. pyrifera sporophytes sown on three types of substrata (ceramic plates, pot scrubbers, clam shells) after 60 and 90 days.

Lessons Learned:

Results could have been calculated as percentage survival of cultured sporophytes rather than measuring length, density and biomass. Ceramic plates showed best results in laboratory conditions, by clam shells showed best results in the field.

Project Outcomes:

In laboratory experiments, sporophytes on ceramic plates were significantly longer than those on pot scrubbers or shells after 60 days, and their density was also higher. At the end of the field experiment in the kelp forest site, highest biomass and length were obtained on the clam shell substrates, but there were no differences in density between substrates. However, outside the kelp forest, no significant differences in kelp density or length were observed between the three substrates tested; but the biomass was significantly higher on the clam shells than on the other two substrata.

Key Reasons For Decline:

Harvest

Indicator Data:

Indicator:

Ending Value:

Starting Value:

Adult Kelp Density

3.9521E-05
/ m2
0.000001
/ m2
Costings:
Cost Currency:USD

Observation Date

1st Jan 2010 – 15th Mar 2010

Action Summary:

M. pyrifera was seeded on substratum units and transplanted to areas with and without kelp. Researchers then determined density, length (mm) and biomass (g) of M. pyrifera sporophytes sown on three types of substrata (ceramic plates, pot scrubbers, clam shells) after 60 and 90 days.

Lessons Learned:

Results could have been calculated as percentage survival of cultured sporophytes rather than measuring length, density and biomass. Ceramic plates showed best results in laboratory conditions, by clam shells showed best results in the field.

Project Outcomes:

In laboratory experiments, sporophytes on ceramic plates were significantly longer than those on pot scrubbers or shells after 60 days, and their density was also higher. At the end of the field experiment in the kelp forest site, highest biomass and length were obtained on the clam shell substrates, but there were no differences in density between substrates. However, outside the kelp forest, no significant differences in kelp density or length were observed between the three substrates tested; but the biomass was significantly higher on the clam shells than on the other two substrata.

Key Reasons For Decline:

Harvest

Indicator Data:

Indicator:

Ending Value:

Starting Value:

Adult Kelp Density

1.61677E-05
/ m2
0.000001
/ m2
Costings:
Cost Currency:USD

Observation Date

1st Jan 2010 – 15th Mar 2010

Action Summary:

M. pyrifera was seeded on substratum units and transplanted to areas with and without kelp. Researchers then determined density, length (mm) and biomass (g) of M. pyrifera sporophytes sown on three types of substrata (ceramic plates, pot scrubbers, clam shells) after 60 and 90 days.

Lessons Learned:

Results could have been calculated as percentage survival of cultured sporophytes rather than measuring length, density and biomass. Ceramic plates showed best results in laboratory conditions, by clam shells showed best results in the field.

Project Outcomes:

In laboratory experiments, sporophytes on ceramic plates were significantly longer than those on pot scrubbers or shells after 60 days, and their density was also higher. At the end of the field experiment in the kelp forest site, highest biomass and length were obtained on the clam shell substrates, but there were no differences in density between substrates. However, outside the kelp forest, no significant differences in kelp density or length were observed between the three substrates tested; but the biomass was significantly higher on the clam shells than on the other two substrata.

Key Reasons For Decline:

Harvest

Indicator Data:

Indicator:

Ending Value:

Starting Value:

Adult Kelp Density

2.87425E-05
/ m2
0.000001
/ m2
Costings:
Cost Currency:USD

Observation Date

1st Jan 2010 – 15th Mar 2010

Action Summary:

M. pyrifera was seeded on substratum units and transplanted to areas with and without kelp. Researchers then determined density, length (mm) and biomass (g) of M. pyrifera sporophytes sown on three types of substrata (ceramic plates, pot scrubbers, clam shells) after 60 and 90 days.

Lessons Learned:

Results could have been calculated as percentage survival of cultured sporophytes rather than measuring length, density and biomass. Ceramic plates showed best results in laboratory conditions, by clam shells showed best results in the field.

Project Outcomes:

In laboratory experiments, sporophytes on ceramic plates were significantly longer than those on pot scrubbers or shells after 60 days, and their density was also higher. At the end of the field experiment in the kelp forest site, highest biomass and length were obtained on the clam shell substrates, but there were no differences in density between substrates. However, outside the kelp forest, no significant differences in kelp density or length were observed between the three substrates tested; but the biomass was significantly higher on the clam shells than on the other two substrata.

Key Reasons For Decline:

Harvest

Indicator Data:

Indicator:

Ending Value:

Starting Value:

Adult Kelp Density

1.09756E-05
/ m2
0.000001
/ m2
Costings:
Cost Currency:USD

Observation Date

1st Jan 2010 – 15th Mar 2010

Action Summary:

M. pyrifera was seeded on substratum units and transplanted to areas with and without kelp. Researchers then determined density, length (mm) and biomass (g) of M. pyrifera sporophytes sown on three types of substrata (ceramic plates, pot scrubbers, clam shells) after 60 and 90 days.

Lessons Learned:

Results could have been calculated as percentage survival of cultured sporophytes rather than measuring length, density and biomass. Ceramic plates showed best results in laboratory conditions, by clam shells showed best results in the field. Researchers concluded that the installation of kelp seeded substratum units may be an option for recovery of exploited M. pyrifera forests.

Project Outcomes:

In laboratory experiments, sporophytes on ceramic plates were significantly longer than those on pot scrubbers or shells after 60 days, and their density was also higher. At the end of the field experiment in the kelp forest site, highest biomass and length were obtained on the clam shell substrates, but there were no differences in density between substrates. However, outside the kelp forest, no significant differences in kelp density or length were observed between the three substrates tested; but the biomass was significantly higher on the clam shells than on the other two substrata.

Key Reasons For Decline:

Harvest

Indicator Data:

Indicator:

Ending Value:

Starting Value:

Adult Kelp Density

1.17073E-05
/ m2
0.000001
/ m2
Costings:
Cost Currency:USD

Observation Date

1st Jan 2010 – 15th Mar 2010

Action Summary:

M. pyrifera was seeded on substratum units and transplanted to areas with and without kelp. Researchers then determined density, length (mm) and biomass (g) of M. pyrifera sporophytes sown on three types of substrata (ceramic plates, pot scrubbers, clam shells) after 60 and 90 days.

Lessons Learned:

Results could have been calculated as percentage survival of cultured sporophytes rather than measuring length, density and biomass. Ceramic plates showed best results in laboratory conditions, by clam shells showed best results in the field.

Project Outcomes:

In laboratory experiments, sporophytes on ceramic plates were significantly longer than those on pot scrubbers or shells after 60 days, and their density was also higher. At the end of the field experiment in the kelp forest site, highest biomass and length were obtained on the clam shell substrates, but there were no differences in density between substrates. However, outside the kelp forest, no significant differences in kelp density or length were observed between the three substrates tested; but the biomass was significantly higher on the clam shells than on the other two substrata.

Key Reasons For Decline:

Harvest

Indicator Data:

Indicator:

Ending Value:

Starting Value:

Adult Kelp Density

4.39024E-06
/ m2
0.000001
/ m2
Costings:
Cost Currency:USD