Restoration Project

Pukyong National University - Munjung-ri

Restoration Objective:

This study aimed to test the effectiveness of pyramid-shaped artificial reefs in promoting regrowth of kelp forests, in order to enhance the yield of marine resources in the form of products and organisms.

Cause Of Decline:

Marine forests refer to locations where marine algae and eelgrass are abundant in large areas. However, during the high economic growth period from the 1960’s, land reclamation, coastal development and industrial water waste resulted in environmental pollution. As a result, the total marine forest area has decreased by about 40% since the 1980’s.

Key Reasons For Decline:

Water Pollution

Scientific Paper

A study on Marine Algal Succession and Community in Pyramid–shaped Artificial Reef

C.G. Choi, S.W. Jung, J.K. Ahn, Y. Shimasaki, I.J. Kang, .


Pukyong National University

Site Observations:

Observation Date

1st Nov 2015 – 1st Nov 2017

Action Summary:

Pyramid-shaped artificial reefs were installed in at Mundong and Busan in Korea in November 2015. To determine the marine environment characteristics, eight quarterly investigations were carried out during 2016 and 2017. Water temperature, salinity, DO, pH and transparency were measured at the top of the artificial reef with a YSI– 6600V2 and Secchi disc (φ30 cm).

Lessons Learned:

There was no information on the size or material of the pyramid reefs.

Project Outcomes:

In January of 2016, two months after the reef instalment, only Ulva spp. and non–geniculated coralline algae were found. Ten months after instalment, non–geniculated coralline algae were dominant; however, perennial Ecklonia cava continued to grow robustly. During the 2 years of monitoring, Ecklonia cava and Grateloupia elliptica were the dominant species growing on the artificial reefs. During the earlier stages post–instalment, short–lived annual marine algae attached and grew on the reefs; however, as time progressed, the algal succession pattern changed to perennial marine algal dominance. After normal structured communities were formed, a large perennial brown algae colony attached to the reef and formed a stable community.

Key Reasons For Decline:

Water Pollution

Indicator Data:


Ending Value:

Starting Value:

Dry Weight Kelp

g DW/m2
g DW/m2
Cost Currency:USD