Restoration Project

National Fisheries Research and Development Institute - Gangheung

Restoration Objective:

The objective of this study was to develop new technologies for transplanting kelp seedlings (Ecklonia cava) to artificial reefs in order to reduce costs and improve conservation outcomes by increasing ease and efficiency of restoration. The objective of restoration was to enhance seaweed resources (i.e. bio-energy) and coastal productivity, remove nutrients from seawater and improve the abundance of a commercially important seaweed and the species it supports.

Site Selection Criteria:

The general study site was an area with depths of 6-10m, with well-developed, even rock beds, and a smooth current flow.

Cause Of Decline:

In Korea, barren grounds are expanding due to the destruction of seaweed communities due to overharvesting of commercial seaweeds, overgrazing by marine animals (i.e. urchins, sea slugs and gastropods), and seaweed habitat destruction due to coastal industrialisation and pollution.

Key Reasons For Decline:


Scientific Paper

Studies on technology for seaweed forest construction and transplanted Ecklonia cava growth for an artificial seaweed reef

Y.D. Kim, J.P. Hong, H.I. Song, M.S. Park, T.S. Moon, H.I. Yoo, , Journal of Environmental Biology, Vol. 33.


National Fisheries Research and Development Institute

Site Observations:

Observation Date

1st Feb 2005 – 1st Oct 2005

Action Summary:

12 cross-shaped artificial reefs were established on a rock bed at a depth of 7-9m. A U-shaped groove was hollowed out in the artificial reefs and covered with a zinc sheet (U-bar) to transplant Ecklonia cava growing on Dellenia wood by hand, by installing the U-bar on the artificial seaweed reef and fixing it with concrete.

Lessons Learned:

Seaweeds can be attached easily to artificial reefs by installing reefs with hollowed out U-bars, and then installing kelps grown on wood. This enables transplanted seedlings to be easily installed and replaced, so improves ease and efficiency of restoration.

Project Outcomes:

The mean length of transplanted Ecklonia cava blades was 7.2 cm in February 2005, and reached a maximum size of 35.9 cm (n=30) by July. Thereafter, mean length decreased to 18.9 cm in October due to shedding. The leaf weight after the experiment was 24.8 from the initial 0.4 cm (n=30). The artificial seaweed forest constructed in the barren ground was highly comparable with natural seaweed forest in terms of growth, indicating that this method can be used successfully for artificial seaweed construction.

Key Reasons For Decline:


Area of Restoration (In Square Metres)


Indicator Data:


Ending Value:

Starting Value:

Wet Weight Kelp

g WW/m2
g WW/m2
Transplant Info:
Adherence Method:Attached to Artificial Reef
Life Stage:Adult
Cost Currency:USD