Restoration Project

Centre Oceanogràfic de les Balears - Sant Felip

Restoration Objective:

The aim of this study was (1) to provide the first experimental evidence on the effect of pollution on Cystoseira spp. survival and fitness in Mediterranean coastal waters, and (2) to test if Cystoseira populations were able to recover in areas where management actions addressed to ameliorate seawater quality had been established.

Site Selection Criteria:

Three different environmental situations were selected, a control area (low to no pollution), a slightly polluted area, and a heavily polluted area. The first two sites had Cystoseira species still present, while in the heavily polluted area Cystoseira was absent but had been documented in the past. The disappearance of Cystoseira had been documented in both polluted areas.

Cause Of Decline:

Algae of the genus Cystoseira (Fucales, Heterokontophyta) are amongst the most important habitat-forming species in Mediterranean shallow waters, and are currently experiencing a severe decline in many Mediterranean regions. Observational studies have generally suggested pollution as the main factor influencing the disappearance of Cystoseira spp. The disappearance of populations is of particular concern when the species involved are long-lived and/or habitat engineers. This is the case of the algae of the orders Fucales and Laminariales whose losses cause strong shifts in abundance and diversity of associated flora and fauna. Furthermore, these habitat-forming algae take a long time to recover when water quality improves.

Key Reasons For Decline:

Water Pollution

Scientific Paper

Pollution impacts and recovery potential in three species of the genus Cystoseira (Fucales, Heterokontophyta

M. Sales, E. Cebrian, F. Tomas, E. Ballesteros, , Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, Vol. 92.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2011.01.008

Organisation:

Centre Oceanogràfic de les Balears

Site Observations:

Observation Date

1st Jan 2008 – 1st Oct 2008

Action Summary:

Cystoseira specimens were transplanted from a non-polluted area to two areas displaying different levels of pollution, where the disappearance of Cystoseira stands had been documented.

Lessons Learned:

Cystoseira populations can survive in slightly polluted areas despite high uptake of heavy metals. Due to low dispersal and recruitment, transplantation is likely necessary to re-establish these populations even though survival is possible.

Project Outcomes:

Cystoseira specimens transplanted to the polluted areas absorbed heavy metals and increased their concentration in algal tissues. Negative effects in survival of C. barbata and growth of C. crinita were detected in specimens transplanted to the high pollution area. However, neither survival nor growth of any of the Cystoseira species was negatively affected at the slightly polluted area, and growth was favoured for C. barbata. Probably due to an improvement in water quality related to the construction of a waste water outfall in 1980, at present Cystoseira specimens seem to be able to live in the less impacted areas of the harbour.

Key Reasons For Decline:

Water Pollution

Area of Restoration (In Square Metres)

1.8

Indicator Data:

Indicator:

Ending Value:

Starting Value:

Percent Survival

62.66233766
%
81.49350649
%
Costings:
Cost Currency:USD

Observation Date

1st Jan 2008 – 1st Oct 2008

Action Summary:

Cystoseira specimens were transplanted from a non-polluted area to two areas displaying different levels of pollution, where the disappearance of Cystoseira stands had been documented.

Lessons Learned:

Cystoseira populations can survive in slightly polluted areas despite high uptake of heavy metals. Due to low dispersal and recruitment, transplantation is likely necessary to re-establish these populations even though survival is possible.

Project Outcomes:

Cystoseira specimens transplanted to the polluted areas absorbed heavy metals and increased their concentration in algal tissues. Negative effects in survival of C. barbata and growth of C. crinita were detected in specimens transplanted to the high pollution area. However, neither survival nor growth of any of the Cystoseira species was negatively affected at the slightly polluted area, and growth was favoured for C. barbata. Probably due to an improvement in water quality related to the construction of a waste water outfall in 1980, at present Cystoseira specimens seem to be able to live in the less impacted areas of the harbour.

Key Reasons For Decline:

Water Pollution

Area of Restoration (In Square Metres)

1.8

Indicator Data:

Indicator:

Ending Value:

Starting Value:

Percent Survival

47.4916388
%
100
%
Costings:
Cost Currency:USD

Observation Date

1st Jan 2008 – 1st Oct 2008

Action Summary:

Cystoseira specimens were transplanted from a non-polluted area to two areas displaying different levels of pollution, where the disappearance of Cystoseira stands had been documented.

Lessons Learned:

Cystoseira populations can survive in slightly polluted areas despite high uptake of heavy metals. Due to low dispersal and recruitment, transplantation is likely necessary to re-establish these populations even though survival is possible.

Project Outcomes:

Cystoseira specimens transplanted to the polluted areas absorbed heavy metals and increased their concentration in algal tissues. Negative effects in survival of C. barbata and growth of C. crinita were detected in specimens transplanted to the high pollution area. However, neither survival nor growth of any of the Cystoseira species was negatively affected at the slightly polluted area, and growth was favoured for C. barbata. Probably due to an improvement in water quality related to the construction of a waste water outfall in 1980, at present Cystoseira specimens seem to be able to live in the less impacted areas of the harbour.

Key Reasons For Decline:

Water Pollution

Area of Restoration (In Square Metres)

1.8

Indicator Data:

Indicator:

Ending Value:

Starting Value:

Percent Survival

62.37942122
%
87.13826367
%
Costings:
Cost Currency:USD

Observation Date

1st Jan 2008 – 1st Oct 2008

Action Summary:

Cystoseira specimens were transplanted from a non-polluted area to two areas displaying different levels of pollution, where the disappearance of Cystoseira stands had been documented.

Lessons Learned:

Cystoseira populations can survive in slightly polluted areas despite high uptake of heavy metals. Due to low dispersal and recruitment, transplantation is likely necessary to re-establish these populations even though survival is possible.

Project Outcomes:

Cystoseira specimens transplanted to the polluted areas absorbed heavy metals and increased their concentration in algal tissues. Negative effects in survival of C. barbata and growth of C. crinita were detected in specimens transplanted to the high pollution area. However, neither survival nor growth of any of the Cystoseira species was negatively affected at the slightly polluted area, and growth was favoured for C. barbata. Probably due to an improvement in water quality related to the construction of a waste water outfall in 1980, at present Cystoseira specimens seem to be able to live in the less impacted areas of the harbour.

Key Reasons For Decline:

Water Pollution

Area of Restoration (In Square Metres)

1.8

Indicator Data:

Indicator:

Ending Value:

Starting Value:

Percent Survival

75.32467532
%
99
%
Costings:
Cost Currency:USD

Observation Date

1st Jan 2008 – 1st Oct 2008

Action Summary:

Cystoseira specimens were transplanted from a non-polluted area to two areas displaying different levels of pollution, where the disappearance of Cystoseira stands had been documented.

Lessons Learned:

Cystoseira populations can survive in slightly polluted areas despite high uptake of heavy metals. Due to low dispersal and recruitment, transplantation is likely necessary to re-establish these populations even though survival is possible.

Key Reasons For Decline:

Water Pollution

Area of Restoration (In Square Metres)

1.8

Indicator Data:

Indicator:

Ending Value:

Starting Value:

Percent Survival

75.91973244
%
53.17725753
%
Costings:
Cost Currency:USD

Observation Date

1st Jan 2008 – 1st Oct 2008

Action Summary:

Cystoseira specimens were transplanted from a non-polluted area to two areas displaying different levels of pollution, where the disappearance of Cystoseira stands had been documented.

Lessons Learned:

Cystoseira populations can survive in slightly polluted areas despite high uptake of heavy metals. Due to low dispersal and recruitment, transplantation is likely necessary to re-establish these populations even though survival is possible.

Project Outcomes:

Cystoseira specimens transplanted to the polluted areas absorbed heavy metals and increased their concentration in algal tissues. Negative effects in survival of C. barbata and growth of C. crinita were detected in specimens transplanted to the high pollution area. However, neither survival nor growth of any of the Cystoseira species was negatively affected at the slightly polluted area, and growth was favoured for C. barbata. Probably due to an improvement in water quality related to the construction of a waste water outfall in 1980, at present Cystoseira specimens seem to be able to live in the less impacted areas of the harbour.

Key Reasons For Decline:

Water Pollution

Area of Restoration (In Square Metres)

1.8

Indicator Data:

Indicator:

Ending Value:

Starting Value:

Percent Survival

70.41800643
%
22.50803859
%
Costings:
Cost Currency:USD