Restoration Project

California Department of Fish and Wildlife - Redeno Beach

Restoration Objective:

The aims of this study were to determine: (i) the practicality of man-made reefs in southern California waters, (ii) the best materials to use, and (iii) the return to the fishermen. The overall objective was to test methods of generating kelp forests to enhance fisheries harvests.

Site Selection Criteria:

Reef sites were selected in extensive flat sand or mud-sand areas far away from rocks that might provide 'competition' to the artificial reefs.

Cause Of Decline:

Coastal ecosystems are threatened by increasing population sizes, urbanisation, water pollution and harvesting pressures.

Key Reasons For Decline:

Multiple

Scientific Paper

Man-made reef ecology (Vol. 146). State of California, Department of Fish and Game.

C.H. Turner, E.E. Ebert, R.R. Given, .https://escholarship.org/uc/item/2s55m47r

Organisation:

California Department of Fish and Wildlife

Site Observations:

Observation Date

25th Sep 1958 – 1st Nov 1960

Action Summary:

Six wooden streetcars were placed in 60 feet of water approximately 1 mile offshore from the Redondo Beach-Palos Verdes coastline. The streetcars (50 feet long, 10 feet wide, and 11 feet high), were placed 10 feet apart, covering approximately 7,700 square feet . SCUBA was used to measure presence of fish species and the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera before and after artificial reef installation.

Lessons Learned:

This study evaluates the true value of artificial reefs by measuring if artificial reefs can attract algae and kelp growth. It also evaluates how offshore oil drilling installations affect these reefs.

Project Outcomes:

There was no substantial growth of algae observed on any part of the artificial reef. Transplants of M. pyrifera were attempted without any success. Each year in late summer and early fall, many tiny (¾- to 1½-inch) algae were observed, identified as Laminaria farlowii, Pterygophora californica and Gigartina sp. Within a few months all had been grazed or otherwise removed from the reef. Among the other algae observed were Callithamnion sp., Ectocarpus sp., and Eisenia arborea. None of these algae were present in any quantity and all eventually disappeared.

Key Reasons For Decline:

Multiple

Scientific Paper:

J.G. Carlisle, C.H. Turner, E.E. Ebert, .https://escholarship.org/uc/item/99n3p098

Indicator Data:

Indicator:

Ending Value:

Starting Value:

Presence / Absence of Kelp

Costings:
Cost Year:1958
Cost Currency:USD
Total Cost:1,200
Capital Cost:1,200

Observation Date

1st Aug 1960 – 1st Nov 1963

Action Summary:

An artificial reef was constructed from 333 tons of class B quarry rock, one streetcar, 14 automobile bodies, and 44 concrete shelters, each of the materials making up a similar total cubic area. Each of the four materials formed a corner of each reef, and was placed 100 - 200 feet from its nearest neighbour to allow separate fish populations to build up around each material.

Lessons Learned:

Transplants were on an artificial reef, did not last long.

Project Outcomes:

Giant kelp became established naturally only on the Paradise Cove car body reef, presumably due to this reef's proximity to an existing kelp bed.

Key Reasons For Decline:

Multiple

Indicator Data:

Indicator:

Ending Value:

Starting Value:

Presence / Absence of Kelp

Costings:
Cost Year:1960
Cost Currency:USD
Total Cost:6,000
Capital Cost:6,000

Observation Date

1st Feb 1959 – 21st Feb 1959

Action Summary:

Macrocystis plants were transplanted from the Paradise Cove car body reef to the Redondo Beach streetcar reef in 1959. These plants were transported in tubs of water and affixed with nylon line to the streetcar roof, protected by hardware cloth cages that were open at the top, to allow the long stipes and blades to trail upward.

Lessons Learned:

Transplants were on an artificial reef, did not last long.

Project Outcomes:

Cage-protected Redeno Beach transplants survived a few weeks but adverse oceanographic conditions (warm turbid waters) resulted in their demise.

Nature of Disturbance:

Cage protected-transplants at Redeno beach survived a few weeks, but then died due to warm turbid waters.

Key Reasons For Decline:

Multiple

Indicator Data:

Indicator:

Ending Value:

Starting Value:

Presence / Absence of Kelp

Costings:
Cost Currency:USD

Observation Date

1st Jan 1959 – 15th Jan 1959

Action Summary:

Macrocystis pyrifera kelps were transplanted from the Paradise Cove car body reef to the Redondo Beach streetcar reef in 1959. These plants were transported in tubs of water and affixed with nylon line to the streetcar roof.

Lessons Learned:

Transplants were on an artificial reef, did not last long.

Project Outcomes:

Unprotected Redeno Beach transplants were quickly devoured by herbivorous fishes (opaleye and halfmoon).

Nature of Disturbance:

Unprotected plants transplanted to Redeno Beach were quickly devoured by herbivorous fishes (opaleye and halfmoon).

Key Reasons For Decline:

Multiple

Indicator Data:

Indicator:

Ending Value:

Starting Value:

Presence / Absence of Kelp

Costings:
Cost Currency:USD