The aim of this study was to test the effect of kelp on the abundance, composition and spatial distribution of the rockfish community, in order to support conservation, restoration and management issues.
Cause Of Decline:
In coastal upwelling regions of the Northeast and Southeast Pacific, the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) causes alternative habitat states, i.e. dense kelp beds, kelp patches and deforested barren grounds, due to variable physical factors and biological top–down effects. In addition, storms can detach entire plants from the substratum, which became entangled with attached plants either ripping them free or causing extensive stipe loss. A survey at Catalina Island in December 1984 showed the complete loss of M. pyrifera at all depths.
, Vol. 31., Journal of Applied Phycologyhttps://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-018-1657-1